Republic of Uzbekistan
Official name - Republic of Uzbekistan
Location - Central Asia
Area – 447.400 sq. km.
Population: more than 29 million people (as of 1 January, 2013)
Capital city - Tashkent
Main cities - Samarkand, Namangan, Bukhara, Andijan, Ferghana, Qarshi, Termez
Borders with: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
The Republic of Uzbekistan is the largest country in the region, with the special geographic and geopolitical location in Central Asia and is rich in natural and human resources.
Uzbekistan consists of 12 provinces and autonomous Republic of Qoraqalpoghiston.
The Republic of Uzbekistan declared its Independence and sovereignty on 31 august, 1991 in Tashkent.
On the population, Uzbekistan is the third largest in CIS and, the first largest in Central Asia.
Almost 80% of population of the country is Uzbeks. Uzbekistan is multiethnic country with more than 100 ethnic groups: 5.5% - Russians, 5%-Tajiks, 3%-Kazakhs, 2.5%-Qoraqalpoqs, 1.5% - Tatars, 2.5% - miscellaneous. Religious confessions consist of Muslims (mainly Sunnites)-88%, Orthodox - 9% and miscellaneous (Judaists, Buddhists, Catholics, protestants and others) -3%.
The Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as other Central Asian countries, is remarkable for relatively young population and high share of working age population. The share of people under working age in total number of population is 39%, working age - 54%, above working age - 7%.
The Republic of Uzbekistan possesses large production and mineral resource potential, unique agricultural resources, significant volumes of prepared raw materials (semi-finished products), derived as a result of processing, rich natural resources, developed infrastructure.
Modern level of prospecting minerals is connected with development of richest deposits of precious, non-ferrous and rare metals, all types of organic fuel – oil, natural gas and gas condensate, brown and low temperature coking coal, oil shale, uranium, many types of resources for construction materials.
On the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan was found broad range of treasures of the soil, which includes more than 100 minerals, out of which 60 are already used in the economy.
According to confirmed reserves of such minerals as gold, uranium, copper, natural gas, tungsten, potassium salts, phosphorus, kaolin, Uzbekistan ranks leadership positions not only in CIS, but in the entire world. Thus, Uzbekistan is the 4thlargest on gold reserves, and is the 7th largest on mining hereof, 10th-11th – on copper reserves; uranium – 7th-8th, on mining – 11th–12th.
Available reserves of mineral resources in majority not only supply mining complexes for the long perspective, but also allow to raise the capacities to set up new mining of a number of the most important minerals such as gold, uranium, copper, lead, silver, lithium, phosphorus, potassium salts, fluor-spar, vollastonit, agrochemical ores and others.
Uzbekistan is dynamically developing country and progressive growth of its economy requires anticipatory development of its transport and communication network.
Main directions of transport policy of Uzbekistan are integration into international transport communications, development of efficient international routes for transportation of foreign trade and transit goods, modernization of transport complex and raising of transit potential.
Further construction of motor and rail roads, renewal of rolling stock and electrifying of railways is of great importance for us.
In December 2010, the President of Uzbekistan issued Resolution On Rapid Development of Infrastructure of Transport and Communication Construction for 2011-2015, which will serve as a strong impact for further facilitation of development of transport sector of the country. The total amount of investments to be disbursed by 2015 is US$ 6.9 billion.
The above document envisages large scale construction and modernization of motor and rail roads, bridges, renewal of the fleet of the vehicles, railway locomotives and carriage fleet, purchase of new mid and long distance passenger air fleet manufactured by Boeing and Airbus.
Besides, by the end of 2011, the country intends to launch two Spanish high speed trains Talgo-250 which will travel between the cities of Uzbekistan in some sections reaching the speed of 250 km/h.
Motor transport and roads
As of today, the total length of the motor roads of Uzbekistan is 183,000 km (with 42,500 km of regular highways, including 3,200 km of international motorways).
Motor transport covers about 10% of foreign trade and 88% of domestic passenger and cargo transportations. An annual growth rate of volumes of motor transport services is 20%.
With aim at creation of unified national transport system through construction and renovation of motorways meeting international requirements and standards, in 2009, Uzbekistan issued National Highway Development Program, 2009-2014, implementation of which started earlier this year.
In the context of large scale program of construction of national highway, it’s intended to renovate and construct motorways with total length of 1,501 km, including Uzbek section of trans-European highway Е-40, passing towards Beineu – Kungrad – Bukhoro – Navoi – Samarqand – Tashkent – Andijon, with total length of 1,139 km.
In transport complex of Uzbekistan, special role belongs to railway transport. Total cargo transportations through railways comprises about 70 million tons p.a. with more than 35% to be export-import and transit cargoes.
The total length of railways is more than 7,000 km, with 4,600 km to be the main trunk. For further development of railway complex, with phased approach, the country is constructing new railway sections, modernizing existing trunks, electrifying of railway lines, renewal of carriage fleet.
For the last several years, projects on construction of railway sections Navoi-Uchquduq-Sultanuizdag-Nukus with the total length of 341 km and Toshguzar-Boysun-Qumqurghon with total length of 220 km have been implemented step-by-step. These sections are supposed to ensure uninterrupted railway communication among Northern, Southern and Central regions of Uzbekistan.
Moreover, railway Toshguzar-Boysun-Qumqurghon provided direct access to Afghanistan.
Stabilizing of situation in Afghanistan would create realistic prerequisites for forming of entirely new Trans-Afghan transport route with access to the Iranian ports Bandar Abbas and Chakhbakhor, as well as to the Pakistani port Guadar.
Beginning for this was put by the construction and launch of the railway Khairaton-Mazari Sharif, which is the first in Afghanistan. Under the ADB financing, the State Joint Stock Railways Company Uzbekiston temir yullari acted as contractor for construction works of this road with length of 75km.
Today, Uzbekiston temir yullari is one of strong railway companies in CIS. The fleet of locomotives, cargo and passenger carriages, special construction machines and laboratory equipment, scientific base, labor potential and experience of construction works in various climate and geodesic environments allow the Company to perform as contractor on implementation on infrastructure projects not only within Uzbekistan, but also is quiet competitive for participation in international projects.
According to ADB experts, project on construction of Khairaton-Mazari Sharif railway appeared to be the most successful in the ADB history in co-relation of costs, implementation terms and the quality of the works. It should be noted, that the progress of construction was monitored by the international independent experts, which gave high evaluation to the quality of the work.
Air fleet Boeing 757-200, Boeing 767-300-ER, Airbus 310-300, Аirbus 320, RJ85.
The Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On security of road traffic» (in new edition)
№ 818-1 of August 19, 1999
The Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On automobile transport»
№ 674-1 of August 29, 1998
The Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On city passenger transport»
№ 419-1 of April 25, 1997