Republic of Tajikistan
Capital - Dushanbe
Location - the South-east of Central Asia
Territorу - 143.1 thsd. square kilometers
Population - more than 8 million people
Currency - somoni, introduced in October, 2000
State borders - Length: 700 kilometers from west to east, 350 kilometers from north to south. In the west and north, Tajikistan has borders with Uzbekistan (1332,9 kilometers) and Kyrgyzstan (about 987 kilometers); in the south - with Afghanistan (1332,9 kilometers and in the east - with China (494,95 kilometers).
Climate - continental. January from +22 C (Panj) to -61 C (Lake Bulunkul), July from -8 C (Lake Bulunkul) to +45 C (Panj).
The geography of the Republic of Tajikistan is mountainous with heights above sea level varying between 300 and 7495 meters. Mountains belonging to the highest ranges of Central Asia make up 93% of the total area of the country. There is the Farghona valley in the north, while in the northwest and the central parts there are the Turkmenian, Zarafshon, Hisor and Oloy mountain ranges. The southeast boasts the impressive Pomir range (its highest mountain, the Somoni's Peak, with an altitude of 7495 meters, is one of the highest summits of the world); while the southwest has the Vakhsh, Hisor and other valleys.
The Republic of Tajikistan has an abundance of lake's and rivers. There are about 947 rivers longer than 10 kilometers with a total length of more than 28500 kilometers. The rivers account for 60% of all hydro-resources of central Asia.
Tajikistan's high mountains accommodate great supplies of ice and snow. The line of perpetual snow is situated at height between 3500 and 3600 meters in the west and rises up to 5800 meters in the east. The total area of the glaciers in Tajikistan covers more than 8476 square kilometers. There are over the thousand registered glaciers with a length of more than 1.5 kilometers. Sixteen glaciers (such as Fedchenko and Grumm-Grzymailo glaciers) have length of more than 16 kilometers.
Tajikistan also abounds in lakes. There are some 1300 lakes with a total surface area of 705 km2. Karakul, Sarez and Yashikul are the largest expanses to have been created naturally. The lakes are mainly located at height of 3500 meters.
Tajikistan's soil, and its flora and fauna are determined by the alpine environment. The flora abounds in wild fruit-bearing trees and in numerous species of plants, which are widely used by the population
Animals are also abundant. Tajikistan boasts some 80 species of mammals, more than 365 kinds of birds, 49 kinds of reptiles, 40 kinds of fish, 10 thousands of various insects. One can observe such predators as snow leopards, lynx, bears, hyenas, otters, wolves, foxes and martens, as well as deer and rock-goats.
At present, there are 4 natural reserves ("Tigrovaya balka", "Romit", "Dashti Jum", "Zorkul"), 13 sanctuaries and 2 national parks in Tajikistan. The total protected are makes 21% of the total territory of the republic.
Tajikistan is also richly endowed with mineral deposits. Currently, more than 400 deposits have been identified, about 100 of which are being exploited. Some 40 kinds of mineral raw materials are being extracted, such as fossil minerals (about 10), ores and non-metallic resources (about 90)/
Tajikistan has the largest coal reserves in Central Asia. The estimated total geological coal reserves amount to some four billion tons. Eighty percent is coking coal. Deposits have been discovered for many rare and precious metals such as zinc, lead, bismuth, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, silver, antimony, mercury and fluorite, as well as gas and petroleum, among others.
Overview of transport sector
During the period of its independence, the Republic of Tajikistan continues advancement its economic infrastructure, including transportation sector which has determining character in economic development along with improvement of living standards and reduction of poverty.
Development of transport sector will foster support of domestic and foreign trade which stands one of the main tasks in enhancing economic relations, entrepreneurship and international transit.
In turn, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan since the early years of its independence has made main focus on overcoming communication deadlock and building transit channels through our country. The strategy of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan on overcoming communication deadlock was announced in 2010 in annual address of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan to Majlisi Oli - the Parliament of the Republic of Tajikistan.
The strategy includes two main points:
First – building integrated transport network in the country and its connection with international transport corridors.
Second – accession and ratification by the Republic of Tajikistan international conventions and agreements related to transportation.
The strategy of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan in overcoming communication deadlock includes construction and rehabilitation large parts of roads, for instance, highway Kulob-Khorog-Kulma-Karokurum (Shohon-Zigar and Shkev-Zigar), Dushanbe-Kurgan-Tube-Kulob, Dushanbe-Chanoқ, Vahdat- Chirgatol-Saritosh (the border with Kyrgyz Republic), Dushanbe-Tursunzade (border with Republic of Uzbekistan), Aini-Penjikent (border with Republic of Uzbekistan) and opening new tunnels Ozodi, Istiklol, Shahriston and Chormagzak.
For today Tajikistan became one of transport corridors in the region connected with neighboring countries in four directions with newly build railroads, highways, tunnels and bridges.
During last decade 23 public – funded investment projects worth nearly 3,2 billion somoni have been realized throughout the country over the last ten years for the purpose of breaking a communication isolation and opening routes to world maritime ports.
As a result of an implementation of these projects and actions undertaken in this direction, 1650 kilometers of motor-roads were built and renovated, as well as 109 bridges and 27 kilometers of tunnels have been constructed and brought into operation.
11 government investment projects totaling 5,5 billion somoni are presently being implemented in the field of transport.
Reconstruction and rehabilitation of roads continue, as well as construction and restoration of Ayni-Panjakent-Tursunzoda-Dushanbe highway, Kulob-Qalai Khumb, construction of a modern terminal at Dushanbe International Airport and the railway line Dushanbe – Kurgantube (Vahdat – Yovon section) and Kurgantube-Nizhniy Panj should be carried out by 2015.
In addition, construction of alternative roads requires that the Government of the country should expand a scope of economic integration and take necessary measures in the framework of regional organizations to integrate with international communication networks and form new networks which would meet modern standards.
To this end, we continue taking necessary, effective measures related to the implementation of the railway project Tajikistan – Turkmenistan – Afghanistan which may become an important factor in the economic development of Tajikistan and other countries of the region.
A Memorandum of Understanding on Construction of Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Tajikistan Railway was signed on the 21st of March this year, during the visit of the President of the country to Ashgabat, Turkmenistan for the participation in the International Navruz Festival.
In addition to the abovementioned, to create a complete internal transport network and to provide output for all regions of the country on the international highway, on the basis of expert internal and external review, a program of rehabilitation and reconstruction of these roads until 2025 has been developed. This program takes into account the socio-economic benefits of all aspects and will reduce the cost of transport services.According to this program, more than four thousand kilometers of roads and 576 bridges in the amount of 4,4 billion somoni should be constructed and renovated.
Taking into account the specifics of the geographic location of the country, in Tajikistan, work continues on the development of transport infrastructure, creation of an enabling environment for the use of transport routes, which in the near future will have the transcontinental nature, linking Asia and Europe.
It should be noted that in the years of independence, the President and the Government of Tajikistan have paid special attention to the sphere of transport: 39 agreements with nine CIS countries and seven countries in Central Asia and Europe, also 27 agreements with 7 international organizations have been signed.
The Republic of Tajikistan has joined officially 9 International Conventions and Agreements:
- International Convention for the Coordination of monitoring the transport of goods across borders
- International Convention in traffic
- International Convention on road warning signs
- International Convention for the delivery and storage of goods
- International Customs Convention on the Carriage of Goods by TIR Carnet
- European Agreement on the transport and delivery of dangerous goods by road
- An interstate agreement on perishable food and special vehicles for the delivery of such goods
- European Agreement concerning the activities of service vehicles on the international highways
- Agreement on implementation of safety for vehicles and spare parts which are used in them
The Republic of Tajikistan is a country with a future transit opportunities associated with international transport corridors, such as EurAsEC, TRACECA, CAREC, the European Union, in which Tajikistan is willing to continue history attitude as the reliable delivery of transit funds.
On 17-18 September, 2013 jubilee meeting of Intergovernmental Commission of Organization of transport corridor between countries of Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRAСECA) has been held in Dushanbe along with High Level International Conference on the theme “Development of the potential of Central Asia on the period till 2023”. These events according to their program were prepared and organized jointly with Secretariat of TRAСECA and International Road Union. Participants from member states and observers namely Afghanistan, Armenia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Moldova, Romania, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Iran, as well as representatives of international organizations European Commission, OSCE, SOC, ECO, World Bank, Asian Development Bank and others took part in the events.
Intergovernmental Commission reviewed issues of development of international transport corridor TRAСECA for the period of last years, implementation of the strategy of the Commission until 2015 and elaborated Action Plan for 2013-2015. Participants discussed the prospects of future actions towards development of transportation system of TRAСECA for 2013-2014 which will run under Chairmanship of the Republic of Tajikistan.All sides agreed that efficient utilization of potential possibilities of member states of TRAСECA will foster increasing competitiveness, safety and assist to building multifunctional transport system, as well as, attracting investments on contemporary and logistical base.
The transformations are also implemented in the field of civil aviation, as well as space for free competition and the market for air services for both domestic and foreign airlines is created in the country.Active work is being conducted to improve service and enhance the role of local carriers in the international market: there are all prerequisites for work in this direction. Local carriers of Tajikistan -Somon Air, Tajik Air, East Air and foreign air companies operating in Tajikistan are Turkish Airlines, Fly Dubai, China South Airlines, Kam Air, Osmon Air, Utair, Ural Airlines, Sibir Airlines. Together they operate regular flights to over 20 destinations to 11 countries abroad constantly increasing the number of destinations.