Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan is a geographical name. On the one hand this name is linked with the population, which lived in this region for thousand of years before our era, and who were mostly fire-worshippers. Local population considered that fire was their God and so they worshipped the fire. "Azer" means fire. The Turkic name "Azer" was used for this territory for a long time. The word "Azer" consists of two parts - "az" and "er". In Turkic languages, "az" means a good intention and a fate of success. Thus, the word "Azer" means "a brave man", "a brave boy", "the fire keeper". The word "Azerbaijan" originates from the name of an ancient Turkish tribe, who resided in those territories.
Azerbaijan is one of the most ancient sites of humankind. The humankind was present here at every stage of their historical development. There were living settlements in Azerbaijan even at the earliest stages of humankind. Azerbaijan made its own contribution into the establishment of the current culture and civilization, progress and dialectics.
The time kept a range of ancient archeological and architectural monuments for us. The ancient headstones, manuscripts and models of carpets, preserved to the present times from the ancient ages, can provide much information to those who can and want to read them. If you wish to understand Azerbaijan and to know everything about it, you need to look at this country and its people with a friend's eyes.
Azerbaijan is a country of ancient culture. The Oguz tribes which moved here and stayed for ages, have found a deeply rooted culture and in their turn enriched it with Turkic national traditions. The talented and creative powers of our nation are personified in such epic monuments as "Kitabi-Dede Gorgud", "Oguzname" "Keroglu" and many others.
This fertile, generous and friendly land was the home of many thinkers, philosophers, scientists, poets, architects, musicians and artists. A legend tells that Zardusht was born in this land. Azerbaijan also enriched the humankind with such geniuses as Nizami Ganjevi, Hagani Shirvani, Bahmanyar, Nasimi, Fizuli, Nasreddin Tusi, Shah Ismail Xatai, Mullah Paneh Vagif, A. Bakikhanov, M.F. Axudov, M.A. Sabir, J.Mamedguluzade, Huseyn Javid, J.Jabarli, Samed Vurgun, Aliaga Vahid, Rasul Rza.
The country of Azerbaijan was immortalized by such talented painters as Sattar Bahlulzade, Tahir Salahov, Togrul Narimanbeyov, Mikayil Abdullayev and many others.
Our national music - mugam - inspired such outstanding composers as Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Muslim Magomayev, Gara Garayev, Fikret Amirov, Niyazi, Arif Melikov and others to create their masterpieces, which are still known today throughout the world. It also gave the inspiration to such wonderful vocalists as Bulbul and Rashid Behbudov.
It seems that the famous Azerbaijan carpets are the incarnation of all colors of nature and of all signs of history. Today, these carpets magically pass the borders of time and space and travel from Azerbaijan to foreign countries far away.
The models of the decorative art made by Azerbaijan craftsmen from the metal, ceramic, silk and woods are kept in many museums of the world.
The science and the enlightenment in Azerbaijan have a centuries-old history. The Baku State University was founded in 1919; the institutes of the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan play an exceptional role in scientific, educational and cultural development of Azerbaijan. Local scientists are currently studying such important issues as the depths of the Caspian Sea, space exploration and the secrets of human brain.
The existing educational system of Azerbaijan is made up of dozens of higher educational institutions and technical schools, thousands of high schools, colleges and lyceums.
One of the most important problems which is currently solved by local scientists is environmental protection of the Caspian Sea and different regions of Azerbaijan. Such natural reserves as Gizilagach, Shirvan, Zagatala, Aggol, Girkan and others, were established due to the efforts of Azerbaijani scientists.
Through the decades, the local industry was successfully represented by oil producing, petrochemical and oil processing enterprises. The agricultural industry is famous for cotton-growing, viticulture, vegetable-growing and cattle-breeding.
If one compares the economy of Azerbaijan with a living body, it becomes evident that oil flows in the veins of Azerbaijan. The oil and gas resources of Azerbaijan have made this place famous in every part of the world from the ancient times.
Azerbaijan has always been famous for its sources of eternal fires - the atashgehs. There is a place called Yanardag (blazing mountain) in Absheron and thermal springs in some parts of Nakhichivan, Kelbejar, Masali, Lenkoran, Babadag.
In Surakhani, there is an eternal fire place. From the ancient times the fire worshippers from remote places and even the Indian priests were coming to Absheron in search of fire and finding it here. They built their main temples here in Surakhani and Ateshgah.
The word Azerbaijan brings its main wealth - oil - before the eyes. Oil is not only the wealth, but the fame as well. People were coming to Azerbaijan from distant places for this specific taste and colored puddle under the ground. Throughout the centuries, camelcades carried waterskins of oil in both eastern and western directions. The Azerbaijani oil is not used exclusively for the electricity production, but also as a valuable medicine for a variety of diseases. There has been an increasing demand for oil throughout the centuries.
From the beginning of the 20th century, the continuous industrial development around the world, caused an unprecedented growth of the demand for oil. It was at this time oil turned from an everyday mean into an industrial product. Oil become the most important problem in the world in the 20th century - the century of science and technologies. Oil-producing countries have acquired special oil policies and oil strategies in this connection.
Azerbaijan is currently involved into the implementation of huge energy projects. Oil and gas projects are successfully implemented in the Azeri Caspian sector. Azerbaijan is a country, which plays an extremely important role in the Caspian and Caucasian regions, particularly in the development of transport infrastructure in the Caucasus and the implementation of energy projects. It was the region's first country to explore the huge energy potential, to form an absolutely new economic model in the regional development, and to expand political and economic relations between Europe and Asia.
In spite of the sad results of Armenia's aggression against Azerbaijan (Armenia occupied the territory of Nagorny Karabakh and 7 neighboring districts. One million out of total population of eight million are refugees), our country mobilized its potential and had great successes in building democracy. Azerbaijan manages to successfully overcome the difficulties and continues making important and firm steps towards t he establishment of a democratic and lawful country with civil society.
Azerbaijan has membership in the United Nations (UN), Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe (CE), Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), GUUAM, Organization of Islamic Conference, Black Sea Economic Collaboration (BSEC), Organization of Economic Cooperation (OEC). Azerbaijan also actively cooperates with the European Union, NATO, International Monetary Fond, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Islamic Development Bank and other organizations. It accedes to the new joint documents and international agreements.
The development of transport system is of great importance for Azerbaijan Republic. Besides the infrastructures of state economy, such as energy, communication, education, and health care, the transport also plays an important role for achieving social, economic, foreign policy and other public priorities by ensuring initial demands of community life.
45.8 million tons of cargo was carries by all transport means in January-March, 2011 and this is 5.6% (2.4 million tons) more than the same period of the last year.
In that period, 16.0 million tons (growth rate 106.0%) were carried via pipeline transport, 12.1 million tons (4.4%) via oil pipelines, and 3.9 million tons or 5.49 billion cubic meters via gas pipes respectively. Via Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Main Oil Export Pipeline, 9.2 million tons of oil or 4.5% more crude oil compared with the relevant period of the last year were exported. On the Baku-Novorossiysk export pipeline route 540 500 tons of more crude oil (20.2% compared with the last year) was exported.
In the reporting period, volume of the gas carried via the South Caucasus Pipeline on the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum route increased due to the increase of natural gas extraction in the Shahdeniz field. As a result, there was 11.0% growth in the natural gas transportation via gas pipelines.
In the first quarter of 2011, 332.0 million passenger or 6.2% more than the last year were carried by all transport means. General growth in the passenger carrying is 7.8% and 44.0% in automobile and air transport respectively.
In 2011, the amount of information and communication services in the communication sector increased 23.5% in comparison with the last year, and comprised 287.4 million manatas. The amount of communication services to people increased 24.8% and reached 213.3 million manatas. 77.9% of communication services belong to non-governmental sector.
The history of automobile transport in Azerbaijan begins from early XX century. In 1911, there were only 36 automobiles in Azerbaijan. The length of roads with solid surface was only 210 km.
A specialized automobile park was founded for technological and special purposes in oil industry in 1920-1930s.
In 1926, there were 896 automobiles in the Republic, 275 of them were cars, 518 lorries, and 103 were specialized automobiles. More than 400 of the lorries belonged to “Azneft”.
The growth of automobile park allowed to lengthen highways. The total length of highways in that period was equal to 6500 km, and roads of Union and Republic importance were equal to 2300 km.
To form quick automobile economy was one of the important measures for meeting transport demands of the rapidly developing Republic in industry, agriculture, security and other fields.
With this purpose “Uniontrans” automobile enterprise of common use was established in 1935-1936. At this office, automobile groups were used for passenger and freight transportation.
In 1939 Auto Transport People’s Commissariat (with 600-800 automobiles), and in March, 1946 Ministry of Automobile Transport were founded.
Ministry of Automobile Transport reached the highest point in the 1987-1990s and included 140 ANM 9 industrial, 11 construction enterprises.
“Azerauto Transport” State Concern was establish in February, 1992. The composition of the automobile transport means park included 16000 lorries, 7600 cars (taxis), and 5800 buses.
By the June 10, 2003 Decree of the President of Azerbaijan Republic “Azerauto Transport” state Concern and “AzerAutoRoad” State Company were abolished, and with the June 24, 2003 №04 order of the Ministry of Transport of Azerbaijan Republic, “AutoTransportServis” and “Road Transport Service”. Departments were established within the Ministry.
“Auto Transport Service” currently includes several enterprises and organizations (Technical Examination Center; Baku International and Intercity Autostation, etc). Baku International and Intercity Autostation is of great importance among them.
Baku International and Intercity Autostation
As an enterprise of public importance, Baku International and Intercity Autostation gives passenger transportation services to the urban and district population realizes the regulatio of bus route network in the passenger transportation, etc. Up to 4000 different buses serve to passenger every day in Baku city 500-550 buses set off for the regions of Republic on various rates and this means the transportation of up to 350000 passengers. The Autostation has 245 workers on staff schedule.
Road Transport Service Department
Main line of work of “RoadTransportService” Department is currently to provide repair and maintenance in the automobile roads of the regions, to create and look after greenery protection zone of automobile roads, to conduct maintenance, re-construction, projecting and construction of railway and railway facilities, to manufacture building materials and constructions, also to deal with the purchase and sale of these materials to conduct and repair of railways stations, depots, bridge and stops, various automobile road facilities, terminals, social life objects, to prepare prognosis over the road-transport complex and monitors the quality of repairs in the automobile roads.
3578 km automobile roads of Republic importance and 5929 km roads of local importance are intended to be re-constructed and capitally repaired in 2006-2015. Road passages (bridges) and 13 pedestrian passages are intended to be built in various road junctions in Baku in 2006-2007 in order to eliminate traffic jams and to increase the level of transport service.
The railway transport
Azerbaijan Sate Railway was founded on January 20, 1880. The lenght of the first railway in Azerbaijan was equal to 20 km, and served for oil transportation with steam tractive between Baku and Sabunchu. 550 km long Baku-Tbilisi railway and 231 km long Derbend-Bileceri railway were constructed and put into operation on May 8, 1883 and in 1900 respectively. ASR was one of the most important steel highways in the former Soviet union, Azerbaijan railwaymen succesfully passed very difficult tests in the World War II, supplied the Red Army with fuel and oil products, sent to the front 1 300 000 and 600 000 tanks carriages full of fuel as well.
Currently, the lenght of railways in Azerbaijan Republic is equal to 2944 km, operating lenght is 2122 km. More intensive parts of the railway, i.e 1277.1 km are electrified, and this part comprises 60% of the total length. ASR carried 26 201 000 tons of freight, 5 509 700 passengers, freight turnover was 9 524 million ton per km, passenger turnover was 881.1 million passenger per km in 2005. The amount of transit freight transportation on the Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA) corridor has been 7 327 600 tons.
Azerbaijan State Railway includes Transportation Processes Management Union, Passenger Transportation Production Union, “Locomotive Production” Union, “Carriage Service” Production Union, Road Production Union, Power Supply Production Union, Indication and Communication Production Union, Militarised Enforcement Organization, Nakchivan Department and other enterprises.
Currently, express and firm trains of remote purpose travel to Russia (Baku-Moscow, Baku- Saint-Petersburg, Baku-Rostow, Baku-Tumen, Baku- Mahachkala), Ukraine (Babu-Kiev, Baku-Xorkov), Georgia (Baku-Tbilisi), and trains of local purpose travel on Baku-Kocherli-Balaken, Baku-Astara-Horadiz, Baku-Kazakh- Boyuk Kesik, Baku-Agstafa, Baku-Gandja, Baku-Mingechevir, Baku-Astara routes.
Pipeline transport developed in Azerbaijan considerably due to oil and natural gas. The transportation of oil within the country and abroad in efficient ways demands to develop oil pipeline transport every year. The first oil pipeline was constructed in the Absheron region in connection with oil production. The total length of the pipeline is more than 1500 kilometers. 80% of the pipeline is in the Absheron economic region. Shirvan (former Ali-Bayramli)- Baku (130 km), Shirvan (former Ali-Bayramli)-Dashgil (40 km), Dubendi-Boyuk Shor (40 km), Dubendi- Keshle (40 km), Dubendi- Surakhani- Boyuk Shor (40 km), Dashgil- Sagachal- Keshle (90 km), Buzovna-Sabuncu (20 km), Binegedi-Keshle (8 km) are considered important intra-republic oil pipelines and operate in different diameters. At the beginning of the XX century, an oil pipeline of 800 kilometers was put into operation between Baku and Batumi.
The second stage in the development of oil pipeline transport begin with gas production in the republic. In general, we can divide the development of oil pipeline transport in connection with gas production into four stages:
The first stage is characterized with the construction of new gas pipes in connection with the discovery of gas fields in Absheron peninsula.
The second stage includes the construction of new pipelines in connection with the development gas fields in the Kur-Araz region (Shirvan region) including Absheron peninsula.
The third stage is characterized as the stage with the improvement of old pipelines and construction of new ones in connection with the gasification of regions in Azerbaijan.
The fourth stage is characterized with the construction of international pipelines.
The first stage coincides with the 1950-60; the second with the 1960-70; the third with the 1970-1985; the fourth stage with the 1985-2000 years. The general analysis of the gas pipe construction shows that 15.2% of pipe construction falls to the first, 33.8% to the second, 35.7% to the third, and 15.3% to the fourth stage.
Absheron economic region differs from other parts of the Republic both for the history of pipeline transport and for centralization. 14% of general gas pipes of the Republic are centralized in this region. The construction of important gas pipes began from this region as well. In 1931, a pipeline of 12.6 kilometers with the diameter of 400 mm was constructed between Kotli DRS and Orconikidze station.
To get the oil that is planned to extract from the Azerbaijan section of the Caspian to the world market, two oil pipeline routes were determined on October 19, 1995.
The first one is called Northern Route. The total length of Baku-Grozny-Tikhoretsk-Novorossiysk oil pipeline is 1346 km, in Azerbaijan 230km as well. On October 25, 1997 the first oil was carried through this pipeline.
The second oil pipeline is Western route. This line is 920 kilometers, and 480 kilometers are in Azerbaijan. The pipeline was put into operation on April 17, 1999. Through the pipeline called Baku-Supsa 15 million tons of oil are sent to the Western countries every year.
At the same time, the construction of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline has allowed to get Azerbaijan oil to the world market since 2006. 50 million tons of oil are carried to the world market through this pipeline.
The total length of main pipeline transport in the Republic is equal to 4 600 km.
The first plane flew over Baku city s century age, on October 20, 1910. The childish and unstable french biplane of “Farman-4” system driven by Sergei Utochkin made several rotations over the heads of surprised spectators, then landed with thunderous applause.
Azerbaijan got the official status for the new type of air transport in the region after 15 years of acquaintance with aviation: “TCAJS” Trans-Caucasus Civil Aviation Joint-stock Society was founded in 1923. “Mughan Melioration Construction”, “Caspian Shipping”, “Azneft” were its founders. Planes of “TCAJS” were intended to be used in the aero photographing, in the delivery of prompt cargoes and in the post transport.
“Yunkers” plane realized its flight in the Baku-Tbilisi-Baku route in April, 1923, two years later an aerodrome and a civil “Air station” were constructed in Keshla. In 1926, there were constant flights on the Mineralnie- Vodi- Grozny- Makhachkala- Baku- Yevlakh- Tbilisi routes.
In those years airports with the “Dornye-Comet-3” and “Dornye-Mercury” were put into operation planes in Baku, Yevlakh, Sheki. The crew of this planes consisted of two people. Kharkov- Baku- Pahlavi international route was opened in 1929, and a flight was realized to Moscow over the Caucasus that shortened the length of air road for 1 100 kilometers for the first time in 1933. The constant Baku-Moscow route was opened in 1937, and the local “XAI-1” and “Stal-3” (Сталь-3) planes that served to 15 passengers every day. This was a substantial figure for that period.
The first aviation group in Azerbaijan was formed on June 2, 1938. This date has been declared the Azerbaijan Civil Aviation Day with the Decree of the President of Azerbaijan Republic in 2006.
With the outbreak of World War II, aviation routes were mainly used for military purposes.
The new high-quality period in the history of Azerbaijan civil air force coincides with the 70-80s of the century. Airports were built in Gandja, Yevlakh, Naftalan, Nakhchivan, Zagatala, Lenkeran, Agdam, Agstafa, Sheki during that period and they were provided with the landing strips of artificial cover. They were capable of receiving “Yakh-40” reactive planes. Now, eleven regions of the Republic have been connected with Baku by air. Airliner park was one of those that bought “Tu-134” and “Tu-154” reactive planes and “Mi-2” and “Mi-8” helicopters in the Soviet Union. In those years, planes became the most famous- fastest, most comfortable and suitable type of transport.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Independent Azerbaijan Republic invested more than 200 million dollars to the Civil Aviation. This investment allowed to provide the airpark with modern “Boeing-757” planes, to renew flight management systems, to establish the system of preparing up to 20 specialized personnel, and to found an international airplane station in Baku in 1999 that receives aircrafts of more that sixty airline companies.
Baku Cargo Terminal was completely constructed in March, 2005 and with this terminal Baku became the unloading point of cargoes that are carried from west to east and from north to south.
In the same year, Baku Cargo Terminal became member of IATA-International Airline Transport Association on Ground Maintenance and participated in the International Business Partners Program of the International Airports Council.
In the coming years, “Nakchivan” international airport, “Gandja” international airport, and a new airport station building in “Zabrat” airport were put into operation. Besides, “Holiday Inn” hotel was opened in Haydar Aliyev International Airport in 2007. In 2008, “Lenkeran” and “Zagatala” international airports were opened. “Aerobus-319”, “Aerobus-320” “ATR-72” and “Atr-42” airliners were included to the civil air forces. Two third of the park intended for the freight planes was renewed with the modern crafts. In the near future, “Boeing-787” airliner will start regular flights from Baku, Haydar Aliyev international airport will receive “Aerobus-380” airliner.
By the Decree of the President of Azerbaijan Republic, the name of “Azerbaijan Airlines” State Concern was changed into “Azerbaijan Airlines” Closed Joint-stock Company on April 16, 2008.
Today Azerbaijan civil aviation is relevant to the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), “Azerbaijan Airlines” Airline Company is member of civil aviation unions, such as ICAO, IATA, ECAC and Interstates Aviation Committee. The greatest share in the Azerbaijan air transport belongs to Azerbaijan Airlines CJC.
Azerbaijan Airlines (AZAL, АЗАЛ, “Azərbaycan Hava Yolları”) is part of Azerbaijan Airlines Closed Joint-stock Society. This is an enormous airline company and national airline carrier in Azerbaijan. The Company is member of International Airline Transport Association. The headquarters is in Baku.
The main airport of the airline company- Haydar Aliyev International Airport is situated 20 kilometers to the east of Baku city. “Azerbaijan Airlines” carries passengers to Europe, CIS, Near East, and Asian countries. The company plans to open constant routes to Northern America and South-East Asian countries after purchasing a new party of “Boeing” planes with remote flight distance. Now, as the Azerbaijan National Carrier “Azerbaijan Airlines” takes a worthy place in the International Airline Transport Association (IATA), and is leader among airline companies of CIS countries. “Azerbaijan Airlines” is considered one of the leading companies for the number of new airliners both in the region and among CIS countries.
Baku - Haydar Aliyev International Airport
Haydar Aliyev International Airport is one of the five international airports in Azerbaijan. Earlier, it was called “International Bine Airport” in accordance with the name of suburban settlement of Baku. On March 10, 2004 it was renamed after Haydar Aliyev, the Nationwide Leader of Azerbaijan. The Airport is situated 20 kilometers to the east of Baku city, and is connected to the city with two modern auto strada, put into operation in 2008 and 2009 respectively.
“Azerbaijan Airlines” is the registration port of National carrier.
There are duty free trade stores in the International Airport, and unlike other international airports, there are stores not only in the flight zone, but in the landing zone as well. Besides plastic cards, Manat, US dollars, Euro, and Russian Rubl are used for payment in cash.
Haydar Aliyev International Airport meets the requirements of international standards. Due to its geographical position the Airport in Baku has been the number 1 airport in the region for transfer routes between East and West, North and South.
Water transport is the cheapest type of transport. Baku- the beginning point of all sea transport of Azerbaijan is the largest port in the Caspian. It is possible to swim from Baku to Astrakhan, Makhachkala, Central Asia, and to the Anzali port of Iran. Azerbaijan has access to the world ocean via Caspian → Volga river → Volga — the Don channel → Don river → Azov sea. Besides the Volga-Don channel, Azerbaijan ships have direct access to the world ocean via Volga-Baltic and Baltic-White sea channels.
Baku-Turkmenbashy, Baku-Aktau and Baku-Bekdas railway ferry crossing connects two coasts in 11 hours.
In the Caspian sea, oil is carried with tankers. Baku-Astrakhan route is blocked in the winter as the north part of the Caspian sea freezes. Most of the ships working on this route carry load to the ports of the Black and Mediterranian seas and bring a lot of currency to Azerbaijan’s budget during that period.
Azerbaijan State Caspian Shipping and Baku Trade Seaport plays a significant role in the water transport of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan State Caspian Shipping
The official establishment date of the Caspian Shipping is considered to be May 21, 1958. On this day the “Caucasus and Mercury” Joint-stock Marine Company was established with the decree of the Russian Senate. Until 1992, Caspian Shipping Company was one of the 17 shipping departments of the USSR Marine Fleet Ministry. Afret the collapse of the USSR 7 out of the 15 Soviet Republics inherited the USSR marine fleet. In the Caspian sea only Azerbaijan got the fortune of inheritance.
The transport fleet consists of 71 transport ships, and one water-carrying vessel. 36 of them are liquid cargo ships- tankers, 7 are ferry-vessels, 2 are universal vessels of RO-RO type, and 26 are dry cargo ships and the total deadweight is 375 000 tons. In the transport fleet 23 dry cargo vessels make commercial voyages in the Black and Mediterranian basins on the basis of time-charter agreement, the rest of the vessels are used in the Caspian basin. In the Caspian sea shipping plays the role of connector in the Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA) transport corridor. Railway carriages, trucks and passenger ferry-vessels and tankers are used currently for the transporttion of cargo in the Transcaspian direction. The tanker fleet of the Caspian Shipping is the most powerful one in the Caspian. The Euroasian corridor extends from the Lyanyunqan port of China till Vienna, Austria. This is approximately 11-12 000 kilometres. The cargo is carried with different types of transport vehicles through a number of countries that have various legislations, customs and border procedures. The Euroasian corridor is the main cargo base in the Caspian sea for the Caspian Shipping. The transportation is carried out with the tankers of the Caspian Shipping in the Aktau-Absheron, Alaca-Absheron, Alaca-Baku, Okarem-Absheron, Okarem-Baku and Turkmenbashy-Baku routes.
Baku Trade Seaport
Baku International Trade Seaport was founded in 1902. After Azerbaijan gained independence, the Port became an enterprice independent of the Caspian Shipping Company on January 1, 1992. The Port operates in continuous work schedule for 24 hours throughout the year.
The port consists of 5 terminals: 1. The main cargo terminal; 2. The container terminal; 3. The ferry terminal; 4. Dubendi oil terminal; 5. Passenger terminal.
The main cargo terminal consists of 7 bridges the total length of which id 858 meters. One of this bridges is especially intended for the access of “RO-RO” vessels. Water depth in the bridges is equal to 7 meters. Technical base consists of 16 portal cranes with 5-40 tons of load capacity, various types of auto-loaders with 1.5-10 tons of load capacity, 100 rolltrailers and pulling tractors of “Sisu” brand. Mainly piece-unit, pile and scattered wood, autotechnical and container cargoes are unloaded in the terminal.The terminal has the capacity of unloading 2 million tons of freight. Throughout the day, 3 vessels, up to 150 carriages, and 100 motor vehicles can be simultaneously received and unloaded. Total lenght of the terminal’s railways is 8 kilometers. The terminal posseses 4 diesel locomotives, locomotive brigade, depot, railway and truck scales for maneuvering. The terminal has an open storage of 24 000 square meters and 5 closed storages the total area of which is 10 000 square meters.
The container terminal has the capacity of receiving 15 000 containers per year. The terminal has a closed storage of 1250 square meters and container ground of 1600 square meters for working over the containers and the cargo inside them. In order to monitor the container operations, a speecially programmed computer system has been installed in the delivery point. All operations in the terminal are carried out with the help of 2 modern “Kalmar” container auto-loader, 2 “Terberg” tractors, 6 container trailers, and 3 “Hayster” auto-loaders each of which has the load capacity of 2.5 tons
The ferry terminal has 2 lift bridges with the lenght of 87 meters. Depth of water near the bridges is nearly 8-10 meters. The ferry is capable of taking 28 carriages or 45 trailer trucks, 202 passengers and 50 automobiles for each run. The terminal has the capacity of unloading 8 million tons of cargo per year.
The oil terminal has 4 bridges the total lenght of 582 meters. 2 of them are in operation. The terminal may be used simultaneously for 4 tankers of 5 000-12 000 tons. The depth of water near the baridges is 9.6 meters. The oil terminal has the capacity of unloading 10 million tons of cargo per year. Vessel Traffic Management Service is in the terminal. Two towing vessels of 600 and 1600 weight capacity ensure safe approach of the vessels to the coast.
The passenger terminal has a bridge of 130 meters. In the terminal, tour vessels serve to the residents and guests of Baku. Workers of the State Oil Company go to the Caspian oil fields from the passenger terminal.
There is a Marine Fleet in Baku Seaport as well. The fleet has 20 vessels including towing vessels, vessels collecting oil wastes, fire-boats, losman boats, vessels for collecting slops and dirty waters, raid boats, crane vessels, tour vessels, fuel vessels.
Baku Marine Station
The station building was founded in 1970. The newly repaired station has ferry-boats going to Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Russia, two vessels have voyages to the Oil Rocks. There are banquet halls for 120 people, conference halls for 400 people, guestrooms and other service facilities.
In the early 30s of the XX century Baku became one of the most populated industrial, cultural and scientific centers of not only the Caucasus, but of the former USSR as well. Therefore, after the subway construction in Moscow and Leningrad, the initial versions of the General Plan over the development of Baku city held to construct metro in 1932.
However, after a while the 1941-1945 war burst out and hindered the realization of these plans. Only in 1947, two years after the destructive war the Government decided to begin project-research works. In 1949, the construction base of the metro was formed, in 1954 the technical project of the first line was approved and construction of the 12.1 kilometer line was launched. Lines of the main road were parallel to the bay and 500-700 meters apart from the seaside.
In 1953, construction works ceased temporarily and began only in 1960. This point delayed to put Baku metro into operation in time.
In 1966, Baku Metro Office was established with 6 services including movement, motion trains, road and tunnel facilities, sanitary equipment and electromechanics, signing and communication, material-construction provision service.
On November 6, 1967, five stations- Baku Soviet, 26 Baku Commissars, 28 April, Ganjlik and Nariman Narimanov stations and I shift of 9.2 kilometers underground railways were put into operation. Four stations were in great depth, one of them was “Khatai” station in a place called Black city.
Beginning from November 25, 1967, the subway was continuously used and regular movement of the trains began.
The second area of 2.3 kilometers was put into operation following the first one. Later the third line of 6.4 kilometers was opened and connected “8 km” living area and industrial zone with the city center.
The second shift of 9.1 kilometers passed from the north-west parts of Baku highlands and this area was completed with the construction 5 metro stations in 1985, two of which are in great depth.
Cafar Cabbarli station was put into operation in 1993. It was constructed as the passage to the 28 May station.
European Union allocated 4.1 million euros to complete Hazi Aslanov station, which was put into operation in 2002.
Since 2006, new RFID cards have been used instead of the past coin payment system. Since 2007, only these cards are used for payment.
Nasimi station was put into operation on October 9, 2008.
Azadlig Avenue (Liberty Avenue) station was put into operation on December 30, 2009.
Dernegul station was put into operation on June 29, 2011.
It is planned to lengthen the lines of Baku metro up to 119 kilometers and to open nearly 76 stations in the future.
Currently, the Baku metro consists of 2 lines with the total length of 34.6 kilometers and 23 operating stations and 2 stations that are under construction. These stations have 23 vestibules. 7 stations have great depth. In the metro, there are 39 escalators of 5 types and the total length of the stairs zone is more than 4 000 meters. Total length of tunnels is more than 17.1 kilometers. The uncommon feature of Baku metro is that its lines have been constructed over the intersecting relief of the city located in the hilly area and there are many slopes of 60% and 40% and crooks of small radius
Historical Silk Road and TRACECA
In cooperation with many countries worldwide, with the European Union and other international organizations Azerbaijan has closely participated in the restoration of the Historical Silk Road- in the preparation and realization of the TRACECA Program. Azerbaijan Republic has been one of the 8 former USSR states (together with Georgia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) that put forward the initiative the TRACECA Program of the European Commission in the Conference held in Brussels in May, 1993. Current problems and shortages of the transport and trade regional systems were defined and discussed in the Conference. Based on the results of the Conference, The Brussels Declaration, which laid the foundation of the TRACECA interregional Program, was adopted.
The participation of Azerbaijan Republic in the TRACECA Program has strategic importance and provides great opportunities for the consolidation and expansion of economic relations between Azerbaijan and Europe, for integrating into the world economy and becoming international transport junction. Thus, during the past period within the TRACECA Program dozens of technical and investment projects have been realized, including “Training on the management of transport”, “Legal and regulatory framework of transport”, “The exercise of unified tariffs policy in the TRACECA transport corridor”, “Simplifying border checkpoint procedures”, “Restoration of Caucasus railways”, etc.
An international Conference over the restoration of the Historical Silk Road was held in Baku on September 7-8, 1998 with the participation of heads of 9 states (Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine), delegations of 13 international organizations and 32 countries. In the Conference, “Main Multilateral Agreement on the international transport over the development of Europe- Caucasus- Asia corridor” was signed and Baku Declaration was adopted.
The Agreement was signed by the heads of states and governments of 12 countries- Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkey.
In accordance with the provisions of the Main Multilateral Agreement, Baku was chosen as the location of the Permanent Secretary of TRACECA Intergovernmental Commission and official opening ceremony of the Permanent Secretary of TRACECA Intergovernmental Commission was held on February 21, 2001.
In the past period, significant work has been done in the Republic within the framework of TRACECA Program towards the development of transport infrastructure with the purpose of realizing the terms of the Main Multilateral Agreement. Thus, in the recent years, to increase the load flow in the TRCECA transport corridor, some measures were taken in order to improve technical equipment of the transport sector, much work has been done for restoration and construction of automobile highways, railways, and bridges, and for the maintenance of railway vehicles, ships, ferries, port facilities. In Baku, an oil discharge port that allows to load and discharge 10 tons of oil per year was put into operation. Reconstruction works in the ferry terminal of Baku International Trade Seaport were concluded.
TRACECA Program and the restoration of the Great Silk Way is one of the greatest programs for today and the XXI century. The earlier is ensured the comprehensive development of this program, the faster will be the integration between South Caucasus and Central Asia countries and Europe.