Official name of country: Mongolia
Political system: Parliamentary Republic
Population: 2.9 million (by the middle of July 2013)
Official language: Mongolian language
Geography: Mongolia is landlocked country in Central Asia with the area of 1.565.000m2. It borders with Russian Federation to the north, with the People’s Republic of China to the south.
The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is the biggest city in the country, about 50 % of the population lives in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia is elevated on average about 1,580m above sea level. In the north and west lie Altai, Khangai and Khentii mountain ranges. Gobi and desert regions spread throughout the east and south of the country. Much of the country consists of steppe. Mongolia is the 19th largest but the most sparsely populated independent country in the world.
Population: According to the Mongolian National Statistic Office, Mongolia’s total population is to reach 2.9 million people by the middle of July 2013. Approximately 30% of the total population is nomadic and semi-nomadic. Mongolia has a high literacy rate, consistently rated around 98%.
Politics: Mongolia is defined as a Democratic Parliamentary Republic. Free speech, human rights and religious freedom are protected by the constitution. Mongolian press is independent, without any influence from the State Great Khural(Parliament).
Religion: Most of Mongolian people believe in Buddhist, which is recognized as the state official religion. Besides, shamanism is becoming popular among Mongolians. As a central Asian nomadic country, various kinds of Shamanism have been widely practiced throughout history.
Also other religions, such as Islam, Christianity are spreading in the country.
Economics: Mongolia’s transition from a Soviet Socialist Republic to democracy has been characterized by the gradual introduction of political and free-market reforms. Despite political tensions, the country has enjoyed relative stability in recent years. Agriculture and mining are the most important sectors of the economy, although tourism and construction are growing in importance. With its abundant mineral resources attracting foreign investment, Mongolia has become one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. While improving overall relations with the U.S., Japan, and South Korea, it has also sought to strengthen ties with Russia and China.
GDP (PPP): $15.2 billion, 12.3% growth, 8.6% 5-year compound annual growth
GDP per capita: $5,372
Inflation (CPI): 15.0%
FDI Inflow: $4.5 billion
Mongolia’s transport sector, in common with most other economic sectors, bears little resemblance to that at the beginning of the country’s transition to a market economy. Prior to the transition, most transport services were provided by state-owned companies at heavily subsidized tariffs. Now, road passenger and freight transport, urban passenger transport and aviation services have either been privatized and/or private operators are in competition with the state owned operators.
Roads and Highways
The main objective of the domestic road network is to provide connectivity between aimag centers and Ulaanbaatar, and between aimag centers and their surrounding region. To achieve this, Mongolia has a state road network of just over 11,200 km, of which only about 1,500 km are paved, 1,440 km has a gravel surface and 1,346 km has an improved earth surface. Over 6,900 km is earth tracks. On the state road network there are 364 bridges with a total length of just over 13,500 meters (an average length of 37 meters). But of these, 178 are of wooden construction and account for about 20 percent of the total length.
A second objective is to provide connectivity between aimag centers and their surrounding regions, and this is achieved by a local road network of about 38,000 km, of which only 400 km is paved and 500 km have a gravel surface, so about 96 percent of this network comprises earth tracks.
The third objective is to provide links to neighboring countries. At present only one paved road leads to a border post, the road from Ulaanbaatar to the Russian border, but the road to the Chinese border at Zamyn Uud is nearing completion. A third paved border road, in Western Mongolia linking China to Russia, is under consideration.
The Mongolian rail network comprises 1,815 km of broad gauge track, of which 1,110 km are on the main line linking Russia to China, 238 km are on an separate network in Eastern Mongolia that has its own link to the Russian railway, and the remaining 477 km are branches from the main line.A program of repairs and track upgrading, including installation of heavier rail and concrete sleepers is now underway. Maximum train weights have now reached 6,000 gross tons. In addition to mining outputs, the railway is the preferred means of transport for most of Mongolia’s international trade. The current dominance is likely to reduce when the paved road is completed to compete with the railway from Ulanbaataar to the Chinese border at Zamyn Uud. The Chinese authorities require that some Mongolian products, especially animal products including cashmere, be transported by road within China. But even given these disincentives, the railway should be able to retain a cost advantage over road transport over this distance, particularly if road transport from Ulaanbaatar to Zamyn Uud is expected to contribute to its infrastructure development and maintenance cost in a way comparable to that of the railway.
Due to the sparse population, and the severe weather conditions during winter, surface transportation by road and railway is not well developed in Mongolia. Air transport therefore plays an important role in the Mongolian economy, especially for tourists. As of 2012, there are twenty two airports in Mongolia, three of them are private airports and nineteen airports are owned and operated by the CAAM. Sixteen airports are considered operational and six others are no longer functional for regular flights. Only eight airports have paved runways and runway lighting systems. Chinggis Khaan International Airport is the only international airport in Mongolia. It is the largest international air facility in the country and the only facility to offer scheduled international flights. New Ulaanbaatar International Airport Construction in Hushigiin Hondii, Sergelen soum of Tov aimag, is funded by a loan from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JICA). JICA has completed technical and financial studies, as well as on loan terms and justification since November of 2006 and reported the final analysis. The construction of the new airport officially started on 12June 2013. It will be operational in 2016.
Inland Waterways, Ports and Shipping
Inland waterway transport is very limited. As a land-locked country, Mongolia does not have any external ports.
- Mongolian law of road transport
- The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention)
- 1982 International Convention on the Harmonization of Frontier Controls of Goods (Geneva)
- Convention on the contract for the international carriage of goods by road
- Mongolian Law of rail transport
- Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail /1951/
- Convention concerning International passenger carriage by Rail /1951/
- Mongolian Law of civil aviation
- Warsaw convention /1929/
- Hague convention /1955/
- Guadalajara Convention /1961/
- Montreal protocol /1975/
These all legislation acts are provided by www.legalinfo.mn , which is an official website of Mongolian laws.