Official name - Kyrgyz Republic
Area - 198,500 sq km
Population - 5,663,100 people (February 2013)
The capital is Bishkek
Territorial divisions – 7 regions
The major cities are Bishkek, Osh, Karakol, Naryn, Talas, Jalal-Abad and Batken.
The Kyrgyz Republic is located in the north- eastern part of Central Asia, occupying part of the Tian Shan and chain northern of Pamir Altai. Borders are mainly on the natural boundaries - crests of high mountain ranges and rivers, and only places they come down to the plains of Chui, Talas and Fergana valley. Mountains are making 94%; Plain 6%; high mountains 70%.
Kyrgyzstan borders in the north - with Kazakhstan to the west and north- west - with Uzbekistan, in the south-west - to Tajikistan and to the south and south-east - with China (border length 1049 km). The total length of the borders of Kyrgyzstan is 4503 km.
The density of the population - 24 people per SQ.KM 2 38% - urban population, 62 % - the rural population, 51 % - women, 49 % - men. Approximately one sixth of the country's population lives in Bishkek. Kyrgyz make up only 50% of the total population , the other 50 % is divided among more than 70 nationalities : Russian (17 %) , Uzbeks (13%) , Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars , etc. 40 % are citizens under the age of 14 years and 8 % of the population citizens over 60 years. The vast majority of believers in Kyrgyzstan are the Sunni Muslim - 75%, Orthodox - 20 %, and other religions - 5%.
The natural and climatic condition of Kyrgyzstan is defined by its geographical position. Located in the center of the vast Eurasian continent on earth , distance from the water , and the proximity of the desert - these are the factors due to which the climate is defined as continental and dry , as well as there is a sharp seasonal seasons. The huge amplitudes of absolutely altitudes, complex terrain, long geological development and other factors led to the diversity and richness of mineral resources. Kyrgyzstan is rich in natural resources. In the country are significant in its volume gold deposits (seventh in the world), rare metals. In addition, Kyrgyzstan has sufficiently large reserves of coal, oil, natural gas, bismuth, zinc, mercury, uranium, tin, tungsten, antimony (very high quality raw material), lead, nepheline syenites, and others, served as the basis for the creation of the mining and metallurgical industries.
According reserves and production of mercury (Khaidarkan minefield) and antimony of (Kadamzhay and Tereksayskoe minefields), Kyrgyzstan was the first place in the USSR, and for its high quality the Kyrgyz antimony was recognized as a benchmark in the international market.
Discovered reserves of tin, tungsten, and marble in the Sary-Jaz found a decorative and ornamental stone in the upper Chichkanov and Kara Kudzhura has been known for more than 100 mineral springs mineral - carbonate, sulfide, and radon. There are large supplies of a building material. The Ore base of Kyrgyzstan is poorly researched and included in the turnover. Since the mid- 90s the serious stake was on development through foreign investment in the gold sphere of mining. Kyrgyzstan's gold reserves are estimated at about 600 tons. The minefield of Kumtor is a Kyrgyzstan’s largest and eighth in the world in terms of gold reserves (288 tons).
The most important type of natural resources, Kyrgyzstan is hydropower, which it reserves ranked third in the Soviet Union after Russia and Tajikistan. The developed system of Mountain Rivers not only feeds the irrigation system, but also has great energy potential. Rivers mainly belong to the system of the SyrDarya.
Kyrgyzstan - the country of transit, which has the potential to become an important route for transport by transport corridor in Central Asia. To date, ground transportation in Kyrgyzstan, as well as a rapidly growing rail network and air communications system played an increasingly important role in establishing the relationship between the West and the countries of the Asian region.
The 97 % of freight and passenger transport by road, which is a major part of the transport sector. To date, the car park of the country is about 425 thousand vehicles, including more than 348.5 thousand cars, 52.4 thousand trucks and more than 20.8 thousand buses and minibuses
The total length of roads is 34,000 km, including 8810 km of public roads and 15,190 km of roads in the settlements.
In order to reform the existing system of road transport industry was developed the program for 2009-2011, and updated almost all legislative base.
In the development of road transport the freight trucking play an important role. International freight trucking implemented through bilateral and multilateral intergovernmental agreements on road transport. At present time the international road communication to the CR established with 37 foreign countries. Some of them signed bilateral intergovernmental agreements on road transport from 19 states. This 11 CIS countries - Russia , Ukraine , Belarus, Kazakhstan , Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan , Tajikistan , Azerbaijan, Moldova , Georgia, Armenia and Latvia, Turkey , Iran, Pakistan , China , Germany, Poland , Mongolia , Austria and France .
Kyrgyzstan joined to the eight major international conventions and agreements of the UNECE road transport. A big role in solving large-scale whole block traffic problems is played the occurrence of Kyrgyzstan, like other Central Asian states, to the Organization of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) which comprises the states of South Asia. The car park is used by international road transport has more than 1,800 units.
The railway transport of Kyrgyz Republic is a necessary link in the national economic complex. The major advantages of railway transport are: efficiency bulk cargo over long distances, its high carrying capacity and regularity of work during the year, regardless of weather conditions.
Kyrgyz railway represented as executive authority of the State Enterprise «National Company Kyrgyz Temir Jolu» at the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Kyrgyz Republic (GP «NC KTZ»).
Currently, the total length of railways in the Kyrgyz Republic is 424.6 km. The railway network is represented by separate, unrelated lines, geographically divided into two sections - the north (323.4 km) and south (101.2 km), providing output from Kyrgyzstan to the railway network in neighboring states - Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyz railway serves 424.6 km main track, 220 km of station tracks, 66.4 driveways.
In accordance with paragraph 1 of the Decree of the Government of KR No.364, dated July 5, 2011 about organizational issues mainline the railway construction in the Kyrgyz Republic, «The State Enterprise National Company «Kyrgyz Temir Jolu» is handed over to the MOTC of KR (Ministry of Transport and Communications of KR) , is intended to provide a stable and safe operation of rail transport to meet the needs of economic entities in rail freight traffic and demands of the population of the Kyrgyz Republic in passenger traffic.
Priority GP NC «Kyrgyz Temir Jolu» in MOTC is the project for the construction of the Chinese- Kyrgyz- Uzbek railway, with the formation of the southern corridor of the Eurasian transcontinental railway which passing through the territory of Kyrgyzstan, will join the Pacific ports of the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean.
With the successful implementation of this project will be able to connect separated in the railways in the north and south of the country along the route Balykchi - Kochkor - Karakeche - Arpa - Kara- Suu. It will thus be formed intrastate rail network which providing the reliable transport links between all regions of the country.
The air transport is a priority among the other types of transport, because Kyrgyzstan is landlocked country. The 3 of 11 airports have international status, «Manas», «Osh» and «Issyk-Kul» . In the absence of a sufficient volume of passengers, regular flights are operated only 3 local airports (Jalal - Abad, Batken and Isfana).
Today registered in Kyrgyzstan 16 airlines: «Kyrgyzstan », «Avia Traffic Company», «Kyrgyz Airways», «Air Manas», « Itek Air », «Trast Aero», «Kyrgyz Trans Avia», «Aerostan», «Click Airways »,« Valor Air »,« Asian Air »,« CAAS »,« S Group Aviation »,« Sky Way Air »,« Supreme Aviation » and SE" Aviation enterprise».
Kyrgyzstan's main air gateway connecting the republic with countries such as Russia, Turkey, China, India, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates, Germany, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, is the capital airport "Manas», which was built in 1974, today it is the largest airport in Kyrgyzstan and one of the largest in the region with the means of landing the 1st category, runway 4200h60 m, allowing to accept all types of aircraft, airport capacity 1700 passengers per hour.